Note: To view heart animations, you need the latest version of the Adobe Flash Player. Ebstein's Anomaly is a rare defect, accounting for less than 1 percent of all congenital heart defects. The principal aberration occurring with Ebstein's Anomaly is a malformation of the tricuspid valve, which is located between the right atrium and right ventricle. Two of the three leaflets of the valve the septal leaflet and the posterior leaflet are displaced downward into the right ventricular cavity.
These valve leaflets vary from mildly deformed to severely deformed. The third leaflet the anterior leaflet is not displaced but is typically large and redundant, often described as "sail-like". The portion of the right ventricle that sits above the displaced leaflets is usually thinner than normal and may be referred to as the atrialized portion of the right ventricle. A hole between the upper chambers of the heart, either an atrial septal defect or a patent foramen ovale, is virtually always present in association with Ebstein's anomaly.
In some patients with this malformation, the pulmonary valve is also abnormal, either abnormally tight pulmonary valve stenosis or entirely closed pulmonary valve atresia.
Most commonly, the deformed tricuspid valve has a tendency to leak, thus, as the right ventricle contracts some blood flows backwards from the right ventricle to the right atrium. Because of this backwards leakage of blood, a reduced volume of blood enters the right ventricle to be ejected to the lungs. The right atrium, which receives this leaking blood, is usually quite enlarged. Some of the blue blood from the right atrium may pass across the hole in the atrial septum into the left atrium.
This blue blood then goes directly out to the body, which may be recognized as cyanosis in the patient. This is frequently present in newborns with Ebstein's anomaly and usually improves over the first weeks of life.
Infrequently, the deformed tricuspid valve forms an imperforate membrane. In this setting, rather than leaking, the tricuspid valve blocks blood from advancing into the right ventricle and out to the lungs. In patients where the degree of valve deformity is mild and no symptoms are present, no intervention may be required other than prescribing antibiotics prior to dental or surgical procedures to prevent bacterial endocarditis. The surgery usually consists of repairing or replacing the abnormal tricuspid valve and closing the hole between the atria.
When your child has a congenital heart defect, there's usually something wrong with the structure of his or her heart's structure. The heart is composed of four chambers. The two upper chambers, known as atria, collect blood as it flows back to the heart. The two lower chambers, known as ventricles, pump blood with each heartbeat to the two main arteries the pulmonary artery and the aorta.
The septum is the wall that divides the heart into right and left sides. The atrial septum separates the right and left atria; likewise, the ventricular septum separates the two ventricles. There are four valves that control the flow of blood through the heart.The award-winning KidsHealth comes from Nemours, a children's health system that cares forchildren annually and is one of the largest nonprofit organizations devoted to children's health. Established in by philanthropist Alfred I.
Nemours also supports important clinical research, from condition-specific research asthma, cystic fibrosis, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodevelopmental and musculoskeletal disease to translational research genomics, clinical diagnostics, health care delivery science. These studies transform scientific advances into practical ways to improve health care for kids. And, through Nemours BrightStart!
These resources bring knowledge, perspective, advice, and comfort to tens of millions of families every year. Whether performing life-saving transplants, bringing breakthrough research to the bedside, training the next generation of pediatric specialists, or helping parents keep their kids healthier through education, Nemours sets a standard of excellence in children's health care.
Visit Nemours. Larger text size Large text size Regular text size.Patient and family education is important to us. Here you can learn more about autism spectrum disorders in children, and view trusted insights from KidsHealth. We've also provided information from the most respected nonprofit organizations. Autism — whether mild or severe — is a lifelong condition and your child may need medication, therapy or support throughout his or her life.
The next few decades and even the next few years show great promise of more to come. Very often, these children have exceptional strengths in other areas, such as math, visual processing and musical and artistic abilities to name a few. And while there are many theories about the causes of autism spectrum disorder in children, large research studies show vaccinations do not increase the risk for the disorder.
Other studies show that genes may play a role, and possibly prenatal illness or infections, but it is not caused by anything a mother did, or did not do, during pregnancy.
The cause of autism development disorder continues to be a very active area of study. Children with an autism spectrum disorder exhibit behavioral symptoms in specific areas, with different degrees of severity, and at different ages or life stages. Some symptoms include:.
Some children may be easily overloaded by too much — or too little — sensory input.
For example, children with an autism spectrum disorder may:. Kids with delayed skills or other disabilities might be eligible for special services that provide individualized education programs in public schools, free of charge to families. Understanding how to access these services can help parents be effective advocates for their kids.
The passage of the updated version of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA made parents of kids with special needs even more crucial members of their child's education team.
Parents can now work with educators to develop a plan — the individualized education program IEP — to help kids succeed in school. The IEP describes the goals the team sets for a child during the school year, as well as any special support needed to help achieve them. A child who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as a special needs student is the perfect candidate for an IEP.
Kids struggling in school may qualify for support services, allowing them to be taught in a special way, for reasons such as:. In most cases, the services and goals outlined in an IEP can be provided in a standard school environment. This can be done in the regular classroom for example, a reading teacher helping a small group of children who need extra assistance while the other kids in the class work on reading with the regular teacher or in a special resource room in the regular school.
The resource room can serve a group of kids with similar needs who are brought together for help. However, kids who need intense intervention may be taught in a special school environment.Pulmonary hypertension is a form of pediatric high blood pressure that affects the arteries of the lungs and right side of the heart.
Over time, this extra work weakens the heart, and can even cause heart failure. If your child is diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension, you can trust the pediatric heart care in our Nemours Cardiac Center.
Our board. Our cardiac teams offer the latest in research-backed care, delivered with compassion. The expert teams in our Nemours Cardiac Center locations offer a full range of pediatric heart care to diagnose and treat PH.
Services vary by specialist and location, but may include:. World-class pediatric heart care requires the compassion to understand your family's journey, and the expertise to manage even the most complex conditions. Our Nemours Cardiac Center teams treat a vast array of heart conditions, using the most innovative, up-to-date approaches.
Our specialty is the early detection of congenital heart disease. In addition to providing diagnosis and treatment, the Nemours Cardiac Center teams participate in ongoing research with other pediatric cardiac institutions — so every child can benefit from our experience and have hope for a healthier future.
News and World Report. Our cardiologists also offer a Pediatric Hypertension Program at the hospital and in multiple specialty care locations where the cardiology and nephrology teams provide coordinated care to children who have hypertension caused by kidney conditions or treatments. View KidsHealth Library. Skip Navigation. I Want To:.
Professional Education. Healthy Living. Back to top. Pulmonary Hypertension. Services vary by specialist and location, but may include: Cardiac Catheterization. Cardiac Diagnostics and Kid-Friendly Imaging. State-of-the-art, noninvasive, and minimally invasive tests for kids of all ages, including babies still in the womb. A combination of medications will be used to manage PH, including some given by surgically placed IV. Genetics Counseling. Your child may have a higher risk of pulmonary hypertension due to inherited passed from parent to child conditions.
Heart Surgery. Nutrition Services. Our nutrition experts work as part of our Cardiac Center teams to provide education, guidance and motivation for kids who need to stick to a heart-healthy diet.Bones provide support for our bodies and help form our shape. Although they're very light, bones are strong enough to support our entire weight. Bones also protect the organs in our bodies.
The skull protects the brain and forms the shape of the face. The spinal cord, a pathway for messages between the brain and the body, is protected by the backbone, or spinal column. The ribs form a cage that shelters the heart and lungsand the pelvis helps protect the bladder, part of the intestines, and in women, the reproductive organs. Bones are made up of a framework of a protein called collagenwith a mineral called calcium phosphate that makes the framework hard and strong. Bones store calcium and release some into the bloodstream when it's needed by other parts of the body.
The amounts of certain vitamins and minerals that you eat, especially vitamin D and calciumdirectly affect how much calcium is stored in the bones.
In this soft bone is where most of the body's blood cells are made. The bone marrow contains stem cells, which produce the body's red blood cells and platelets, and some types of white blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues, and platelets help with blood clotting when someone has a cut or wound. White blood cells help the body fight infection.How Your Hair Works
Bones are fastened to other bones by long, fibrous straps called ligaments pronounced: LIG-uh-mentz. Cartilage pronounced: KAR-tul-ija flexible, rubbery substance in our joints, supports bones and protects them where they rub against each other.
The bones of kids and young teens are smaller than those of adults and contain "growing zones" called growth plates. These plates consist of multiplying cartilage cells that grow in length, and then change into hard, mineralized bone. These growth plates are easy to spot on an X-ray. Because girls mature at an earlier age than boys, their growth plates change into hard bone at an earlier age. Bone-building continues throughout life, as a body constantly renews and reshapes the bones' living tissue.
Bone contains three types of cells:. Muscles pull on the joints, allowing us to move. They also help the body do such things as chewing food and then moving it through the digestive system. Even when we sit perfectly still, muscles throughout the body are constantly moving. Muscles help the heart beat, the chest rise and fall during breathing, and blood vessels regulate the pressure and flow of blood. When we smile and talk, muscles help us communicate, and when we exercise, they help us stay physically fit and healthy.
The movements your muscles make are coordinated and controlled by the brain and nervous system.
About Congenital Heart Defects
The involuntary muscles are controlled by structures deep within the brain and the upper part of the spinal cord called the brain stem. The voluntary muscles are regulated by the parts of the brain known as the cerebral motor cortex and the cerebellum pronounced: ser-uh-BEL-um. When you decide to move, the motor cortex sends an electrical signal through the spinal cord and peripheral nerves to the muscles, causing them to contract.
The motor cortex on the right side of the brain controls the muscles on the left side of the body and vice versa. The cerebellum coordinates the muscle movements ordered by the motor cortex. Sensors in the muscles and joints send messages back through peripheral nerves to tell the cerebellum and other parts of the brain where and how the arm or leg is moving and what position it's in.
This feedback results in smooth, coordinated motion. If you want to lift your arm, your brain sends a message to the muscles in your arm and you move it. When you run, the messages to the brain are more involved, because many muscles have to work in rhythm.Nothing about serious illness is easy, but one of the hardest things for parents may be watching their child struggle with pain, stress, and anxiety.
Despite what we may sometimes tell ourselves, stress is not just "in our heads. Chronic stress takes a toll on the body as well as the mind. The good news is that using a variety of mind-body relaxation techniques can help short-circuit the flight-or-fight response. Relaxation techniques not only can lessen a child's physical symptoms, they can also help him or her and you! These techniques are designed for parents and kids to practice together.
Most can be done in a few minutes wherever you are, whether that's a quiet place or a crowded hospital, without any special tools.
However, it's important to note that these techniques should be used as a complement to conventional medical treatment for anxiety and pain, and not as a replacement — doing so could do a child more harm than good. If your child is suffering from anxiety or pain, ask your doctor what can be done to help.
And always check with your health care team to make sure that your child's symptoms are related to stress and not a different medical problem. Pain and stress can leave a child breathing faster and shallower, or even holding his or her breath — all of which can actually keep the stress response going and heighten the intensity of pain.
Paying attention to breathing can help calm the mind. At first, it may be difficult for you and your child to focus on breathing. Distracting thoughts are normal — but rather than following a thought and letting it consume you, try to let it drift out of your mind, like a balloon. This technique asks a person to focus on breathing and quiet the mind to create a sense of calmness and well-being.
And by repeating a word, phrase, or prayer during the exercise, the mind is able to stay focused more easily. When practicing this, it's normal for thoughts to pop into the mind. Tell your child to disregard them and just focus on the word or phrase he or she is repeating. Resembling an Eastern form of meditation, this technique — called the relaxation response — was popularized and put into Western practice in the s by Herbert Benson, MD.
To elicit the relaxation response, follow Stepsand then:. When practicing, go at your own pace. Don't feel like you have to achieve a deep level of relaxation right away. Often, feelings of calmness and well-being are felt later on or at times of crisis. To achieve ongoing results, try to practice the technique with your child once or twice daily, but not within 2 hours after eating, as digestion can interfere with the relaxation response. Some people find that the best time to meditate is first thing in the morning, before breakfast.
A growing body of medical research suggests that imagery also can help lessen pain and anxiety, and promote positive feelings. In fact, studies have found that people who practice guided imagery during chemotherapy feel more relaxed and positive about their chemo experience than those who don't use the technique.
Guided imagery also called "visualization" often works best when a person starts with a few minutes of focused breathing.On demand pediatrician visits through live video chat from your desktop or mobile device for mild illnesses and injuries.
Scheduled online appointments with pediatric specialists through live video chat for more specific conditions and concerns. Routine well- and sick-child care, immunizations and advice for all stages, birth through adolescence — in-person or through video visit. Specialty trained pediatric care teams diagnose and treat common to rare and complex conditions — in-person or through video visit.
Emergency, critical, surgical and specialty care at hospitals designed exclusively for kids. More than researchers are dedicated to finding tomorrow's cures and ways to improve health care. Skip Navigation. I Want To:. Professional Education. Healthy Living. Back to top. Learn more about safety precautions and appointment scheduling. Video Visits. Scheduled Specialist Video Visits Scheduled online appointments with pediatric specialists through live video chat for more specific conditions and concerns.
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